The Kasai redo surgery is important for treating biliary atresia. In the era of liver transplantation (LTx), pediatric surgeons must accurately select patients for redo surgery and ensure that potential LTx can be performed later. Although optimal timing for redo varies among cases, appropriate timing is essential. We reviewed the significance, optimal timing, operative procedures, and indications of Kasai redo surgery. Between 1989 and 2011, 2,630 patients were registered in the Japanese Biliary Atresia Registry (JBAR), and the data collected from JBAR regarding Kasai redo surgery were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups, Group 1 (1989-1999, n = 1,423) and Group 2 (2000-2011, n = 1,207). The redo incidence significantly reduced in Group 2. Although no significant difference was found in the native liver jaundice-free survival rates between the two groups, the overall survival rate at initial registry was significantly higher in Group 2. This may be because of the limited number of patients selected for redo and increased availability of early LTx. Patients who achieved sufficient bile drainage following the initial Kasai surgery but developed sudden bile flow cessation were the best candidates for Kasai redo surgery; it should be performed only once for this subset.