An Open-Label Randomized Crossover Trial of Lyophilized Black Raspberries on Postprandial Inflammation in Older Overweight Males: A Pilot Study

Am J Ther. 2016 Jan-Feb;23(1):e86-91. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3182a40bf8.


This study was a 14-day, outpatient, open-label randomized crossover trial of lyophilized black raspberries (BRBs) in older overweight or obese males to determine whether BRB consumption affects postprandial inflammation associated with consumption of a high-fat high-calorie (HFHC) meal. Ten study participants consumed 45 g/d of lyophilized BRBs for 4 days, followed by a HFHC breakfast plus BRBs on day 6 or consumed the HFHC breakfast on day 6 without previous consumption of BRBs and then crossed over to the other treatment after a 2-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours after consumption of the HFHC breakfast. The primary study outcomes were changes in area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The secondary outcomes were safety and tolerability of lyophilized BRB powder. The chronology and values of measured serum concentrations for IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were consistent with those described previously by other investigators. The AUC of serum IL-6 was lowered significantly (P = 0.03, n = 10) with BRB consumption (34.3 ± 7.6 pg·mL⁻¹·h⁻¹ compared with 42.4 ± 17.9 pg·mL⁻¹·h⁻¹ for consumption of the HFHC meal alone). However, no significant differences (change in AUC) were calculated for serum CRP and TNF-α. The findings of this pilot study suggest that consumption of lyophilized BRBs may attenuate postprandial inflammation in overweight or obese males consuming a HFHC meal. Further investigation of BRBs is warranted to better elucidate their inflammomodulatory potential.

Trial registration: NCT01568827.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet, High-Fat
  • Freeze Drying
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Overweight / complications*
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Postprandial Period
  • Rubus*


  • IL6 protein, human
  • Interleukin-6
  • C-Reactive Protein

Associated data