Untreated epileptic encephalopathies in children may potentially have disastrous outcomes. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) often may not control the seizures, and even if they do, this measure is only symptomatic and not specific. It is especially valuable to identify potential underlying conditions that have specific treatments. Only a few conditions have definitive treatments that can potentially modify the natural course of disease. In this paper, we discuss the few such conditions that are responsive to vitamin or vitamin derivatives.