Objectives: To examine antecedents of university students' intention to smoke hookah using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as a conceptual framework.
Methods: We sampled students at a US university using 3 strategies: intercept interviews (N = 62) with hookah smokers and nonsmokers; 3 focus groups (smokers only N = 21); and online survey (N = 369). We evaluated TRA constructs regarding intention to smoke hookah and used factor analysis to identify antecedent domains concerning attitudes toward hookah smoking.
Results: Three domains emerged: benefits, negative health effects, meeting expectations. Attitudes toward hookah smoking were more positively correlated with intention than was subjective norm.
Conclusions: Benefits and attitudes were strong determinants of future intention.