Antecedents of university students' hookah smoking intention

Am J Health Behav. 2013 Sep;37(5):599-609. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.37.5.3.


Objectives: To examine antecedents of university students' intention to smoke hookah using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as a conceptual framework.

Methods: We sampled students at a US university using 3 strategies: intercept interviews (N = 62) with hookah smokers and nonsmokers; 3 focus groups (smokers only N = 21); and online survey (N = 369). We evaluated TRA constructs regarding intention to smoke hookah and used factor analysis to identify antecedent domains concerning attitudes toward hookah smoking.

Results: Three domains emerged: benefits, negative health effects, meeting expectations. Attitudes toward hookah smoking were more positively correlated with intention than was subjective norm.

Conclusions: Benefits and attitudes were strong determinants of future intention.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Intention*
  • Interview, Psychological
  • Male
  • Psychological Theory
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Students / psychology*
  • United States
  • Universities*