Background: No-reflow phenomenon is a serious complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether triple anti-platelet therapy could improve clinical outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who had no-reflow phenomenon during PCI compared with dual anti-platelet therapy.
Methods and results: A total of 727 eligible patients received either dual anti-platelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel; dual group, n=532) or triple anti-platelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, and cilostazol; triple group, n=195). The triple group received additional cilostazol for at least 1 month. One-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) were evaluated. The triple group had a similar incidence of major bleeding and in-hospital mortality compared with the dual group. At 1 year, the triple group had significantly lower cardiac mortality (17.7% vs. 11.8%, log-rank P=0.039), lower all-cause mortality (19.0% vs. 12.3%, log-rank P=0.035), and lower incidence of composite MACE (25.9% vs. 16.9%, adjusted hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.80, P=0.004) compared with the dual group with no differences in MI and TVR.
Conclusions: Triple anti-platelet therapy seems to be superior to dual anti-platelet therapy in patients with AMI who had no-reflow phenomenon during PCI.