The extensive changes in pulmonary function occurring during early development may reflect variations in the anatomic structure of the respiratory apparatus during this period. Accurate definition of these alterations could yield important information concerning the structure-function correlations of the respiratory system. To facilitate the acquisition of morphometric data from histologic sections of pulmonary tissues, we propose the use of a computer assisted image analysis system with a touch sensitive screen as an interactive peripheral. This allows planimetric measurements and computation of the dimensions of areas of selected light intensities within an image. We present the description, design, and applications of such an image analysis system and report representative results regarding developmental changes in pulmonary structure. In addition, we correlate these results with previously published information regarding pulmonary mechanics during early development to help clarify the maturational changes in pulmonary structure-function relationships.