Bladder cancer in Spain 2011: population based study

J Urol. 2014 Feb;191(2):323-8. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.08.049. Epub 2013 Aug 28.


Purpose: We estimate the annual incidence of bladder cancer in Spain and describe the clinical profile of patients with bladder cancer enrolled in a population based study.

Materials and methods: Using the structure of the Spanish National Health System as a basis, in 2011 the AEU (Spanish Association of Urology) conducted this study with a representative sample from 26 public hospitals and a reference population of 10,146,534 inhabitants, comprising 21.5% of the Spanish population.

Results: A total of 4,285 episodes of bladder cancer were diagnosed, of which 2,476 (57.8%) were new cases and 1,809 (42.2%) were cases of recurrence, representing an estimated 11,539 new diagnoses annually in Spain. The incidence of bladder cancer in Spain, age adjusted to the standard European population, was 20.08 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 13.9, 26.3). Of patients diagnosed with a first episode of bladder cancer 84.3% were male, generally older than 59 years (81.7%) with a mean ± SD age of 70.5 ± 11.4 years. Of these patients 87.5% presented with some type of clinical symptom, with macroscopic hematuria (90.8%) being the most commonly detected. The majority of primary tumors were nonmuscle invasive (76.7%) but included a high proportion of high grade tumors (43.7%). According to the ISUP (International Society of Urologic Pathology)/WHO (2004) classification 51.1% was papillary high grade carcinoma. Carcinoma in situ was found in 2.2% of primary and 5.8% of recurrent cases.

Conclusions: The incidence of bladder cancer in Spain, age adjusted to the standard European population, confirms that Spain has one of the highest incidences in Europe. Most primary nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer corresponded to high risk patients but with a low detected incidence of carcinoma in situ.

Keywords: BC; BCG; BMI; CIS; MMC; NMIBC; Spain; TURBT; bacillus Calmette-Guérin; bladder cancer; body mass index; carcinoma in situ; incidence; mitomycin C; neoplasm staging; nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer; transurethral bladder tumor resection; urinary bladder neoplasms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intravesical
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Hematuria / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitomycin / administration & dosage
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Population Surveillance
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • Young Adult


  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • Mitomycin