Understanding the role of Tbx1 as a candidate gene for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013 Dec;13(6):613-21. doi: 10.1007/s11882-013-0384-6.


22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by a commonly occurring microdeletion on chromosome 22. Clinical findings include cardiac malformations, thymic and parathyroid hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and dental defects. These phenotypes are due mainly to abnormal development of the pharyngeal apparatus. Targeted deletion studies in mice and analysis of naturally occurring mutations in humans have implicated Tbx1 as a candidate gene for 22q11.2DS. Tbx1 belongs to an evolutionarily conserved T-box family of transcription factors, whose expression is precisely regulated during embryogenesis, and it appears to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of various progenitor cells during organogenesis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of Tbx1 during development of the heart, thymus and parathyroid glands, as well as during formation of the palate, teeth, and other craniofacial features.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / metabolism
  • DiGeorge Syndrome / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • T-Box Domain Proteins / genetics*
  • T-Box Domain Proteins / metabolism


  • T-Box Domain Proteins
  • TBX1 protein, human