Augmentation enterocystoplasty is effective in relieving refractory ketamine-related bladder pain

Neurourol Urodyn. 2014 Nov;33(8):1207-11. doi: 10.1002/nau.22477. Epub 2013 Aug 29.


Aims: To report our early results of augmentation enterocystoplasty (AE) for severe bladder pain associated with chronic ketamine cystitis (KC).

Methods: We performed AE for 14 patients with refractory KC-related bladder pain, which is based on the criteria including severe bladder pain, urgency and frequency and/or upper urinary tract damage such as bilateral hydronephrosis, and contracted bladder. Every patient had been treated conservatively with medication or cystoscopic hydrodistention for at least 1 year before they had received surgical intervention. Video-urodynamic studies were obtained before AE and 3-6 months after surgery. Outcome measurements included visual analogue score (VAS) for pain, cystometric bladder capacity (CBC), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual, and maximal detrusor pressure (Pdet). The patients' general satisfaction with regard to treatment outcome was also assessed by the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC).

Results: A total of 4 men and 10 women underwent this procedure as indicated. The mean age was 26.7 (ranged 20-38) years old and the duration of ketamine abuse was 3.82 years (ranged 2-7). Contracted bladder was noted in all patients, hydronephrosis in nine and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in eight. At 3-6 months after AE, VAS was remarkably improved from baseline to the end-point (8.29 ± 1.54 vs. 2.14 ± 1.51, P < 0.0001), CBC increased from 50.9 ± 15.7 to 309.2 ± 58.0 ml (P < 0.0001), Qmax increased from 6.94 ± 3.60 to 15.2 ± 5.51 ml/sec (P < 0.0001) and Pdet reduced from 29.7 ± 16.0 to 17.9 ± 8.2 cmH2 O (P = 0.008). All patients reported marked improvement in PPBC from 6.0 to 1.4 ± 0.89 (P < 0.0001). All hydronephrosis disappeared and VUR was resolved in five patients after AE with ureteral reimplantation.

Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated that AE is effective in relieving refractory ketamine-related bladder pain and lower urinary tract symptoms.

Keywords: bladder pain; drug abuse; ketamine; pelvic pain; surgery.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anastomosis, Surgical
  • Chronic Pain / chemically induced*
  • Chronic Pain / etiology
  • Chronic Pain / surgery*
  • Cystitis / complications
  • Cystitis / surgery*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ileum / surgery*
  • Ketamine / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Pilot Projects
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Ureter / surgery*
  • Urinary Bladder / surgery*
  • Urologic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Young Adult


  • Ketamine