Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1)

Food Chem. 2014 Jan 1;142:349-57. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.073. Epub 2013 Jul 25.


The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed state, whilst delphinidin-3-(6″-acetoyl)-glucoside and malvidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible under fasted conditions, suggesting lipid-rich matrices selectively effect anthocyanin bioaccessibility. TIM-1 was fed blueberry juice (BBJ) or blueberry polyphenol-enriched defatted soybean flour (BB-DSF) containing equivalent amounts of free or DSF-sorbed anthocyanins, respectively. Anthocyanin bioaccessibility from BB-DSF (36.0±10.4) was numerically, but not significantly, greater than that from BBJ (26.3±10.3). Ileal efflux samples collected after digestion of BB-DSF contained 2.8-fold more anthocyanins than same from BBJ, suggesting that protein-rich DSF protects anthocyanins during transit through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery/metabolism.

Keywords: ACN; Anthocyanins; BA; Bioaccessibility; Bioavailability; Blueberry; DSF; Gastrointestinal model; Nutrition; Soybean flour; TIM-1; TNO gastrointestinal model; anthocyanin; bioaccessibility; defatted soybean flour.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / metabolism
  • Anthocyanins / pharmacokinetics*
  • Biological Availability
  • Blueberry Plants / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Dietary Fats / analysis
  • Dietary Fats / metabolism*
  • Digestion
  • Fruit / metabolism
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Models, Biological
  • Soybean Proteins / chemistry
  • Soybean Proteins / metabolism*


  • Anthocyanins
  • Dietary Fats
  • Soybean Proteins