Practical guidelines for the supplementation of vitamin D and the treatment of deficits in Central Europe - recommended vitamin D intakes in the general population and groups at risk of vitamin D deficiency

Endokrynol Pol. 2013;64(4):319-27. doi: 10.5603/ep.2013.0012.


Introduction: Adequate Vitamin D intake and its concentration in serum are important for bone health and calcium-phosphate metabolism as well as for optimal function of many organs and tissues. Documented trends in lifestyle, nutritional habits and physical activity appear to be associated with moderate or severe Vitamin D deficits resulting in health problems. Most epidemiological studies suggest that Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among Central European populations. Concern about this problem led to the organising of a conference focused on overcoming Vitamin D deficiency.

Methods: After reviewing the epidemiological evidence and relevant literature, a Polish multidisciplinary group formulated theses on recommendations for Vitamin D screening and supplementation in the general population. These theses were subsequently sent to Scientific Committee members of the 'Vitamin D - minimum, maximum, optimum' conference for evaluation based on a ten-point scale.With 550 international attendees, the meeting 'Vitamin D - minimum, maximum, optimum' was held on October 19-20, 2012 in Warsaw(Poland). Most recent scientific evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal effects of Vitamin D as well as the results of panellists' voting were reviewed and discussed during eight plenary sessions and two workshops.

Results: Based on many polemical discussions, including post-conference networking, the key opinion leaders established ranges of serum 25-hydroxyVitamin D concentration indicating Vitamin D deficiency [< 20 ng/mL (< 50 nmol/L)], suboptimal status [20-30 ng/mL(50-75 nmol/L)], and target concentration for optimal Vitamin D effects [30-50 ng/mL (75-125 nmol/L)]. General practical guidelines regarding supplementation and updated recommendations for prophylactic Vitamin D intakes in Central European neonates, infants, children and adolescents as well as in adults (including recommendations for pregnant and breastfeeding women and the elderly) were developed.

Conclusions: Improving the Vitamin D status of children, adolescents, adults and the elderly must be included in the priorities of physicians,healthcare professionals and healthcare regulating bodies. The present paper offers elaborated consensus on supplementation guidance and population strategies for Vitamin D in Central Europe.

Publication types

  • Congress

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Europe
  • Female
  • Health Promotion / organization & administration*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Mass Screening / methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control
  • Poland
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / prevention & control
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / diagnosis*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / prevention & control*


  • Vitamin D