Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) causes chronic peritoneal damage. Peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) play an important role in peritoneal function. We investigated the possibility of cell therapy using the PMCs to prevent peritoneal damage in PD patients. We harvested human PMCs from the PD effluent of PD patients. The PMCs were separated based on morphological characteristics into epithelial-like (Epi) cells and fibroblast-like (Fib) cells by the limiting dilution method. We transplanted these cells into nude mice whose parietal and visceral peritoneum were scratched by mechanical scraping. The transplanted cells were detected at the parietal and visceral peritoneum. Compared with the positive control, the Epi cell therapy group showed very few adhesions and exhibited no thickening of the parietal and visceral peritoneum. However, the group with Fib cell therapy could not inhibit peritoneal adhesion and thickening. In addition, hepatocyte growth factor was expressed by the grafted Epi cells but not Fib cells. Fib cells expressed vascular endothelial growth factor stronger than Epi cells. These two types of cells from the same patient showed different characteristics and effects for cell therapy. These findings suggest that the PMCs from the PD patient showed different characteristics, such as Epi cells and Fib cells, and the selection of PMCs is important for cell therapy on the point of not only the direct cellular interactions but also cytokine secretion from the grafted cells. Furthermore, the differences in the morphological cell characteristics may influence their role in peritoneal regeneration.