Background: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic chemical ubiquitous in the serum of U.S. residents. It causes liver, testicular, and pancreatic tumors in rats. Human studies are sparse.
Objective: We examined cancer incidence in Mid-Ohio Valley residents exposed to PFOA in drinking water due to chemical plant emissions.
Methods: The cohort consisted of adult community residents who resided in contaminated water districts or worked at a local chemical plant. Most participated in a 2005-2006 baseline survey in which serum PFOA was measured. We interviewed the cohort in 2008-2011 to obtain further medical history. Retrospective yearly PFOA serum concentrations were estimated for each participant from 1952 through 2011. Self-reported cancers were validated through medical records and cancer registry review. We estimated the association between cancer and cumulative PFOA serum concentration using proportional hazards models.
Results: Participants (n = 32,254) reported 2,507 validated cancers (21 different cancer types). Estimated cumulative serum PFOA concentrations were positively associated with kidney and testicular cancer [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.24 and HR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.79, respectively, for 1-unit increases in ln-transformed serum PFOA]. Categorical analyses also indicated positive trends with increasing exposures for both cancers: for kidney cancer HRs for increasing exposure quartiles were 1.0, 1.23, 1.48, and 1.58 (linear trend test p = 0.18) and for testicular cancer, HRs were 1.0, 1.04, 1.91, 3.17 (linear trend test p = 0.04).
Conclusions: PFOA exposure was associated with kidney and testicular cancer in this population. Because this is largely a survivor cohort, findings must be interpreted with caution, especially for highly fatal cancers such as pancreatic and lung cancer.