The study of human developmental microcephaly is providing important insights into brain development. It has become clear that developmental microcephalies are associated with abnormalities in cellular production, and that the pathophysiology of microcephaly provides remarkable insights into how the brain generates the proper number of neurons that determine brain size. Most of the genetic causes of 'primary' developmental microcephaly (i.e., not associated with other syndromic features) are associated with centrosomal abnormalities. In addition to other functions, centrosomal proteins control the mitotic spindle, which is essential for normal cell proliferation during mitosis. However, the brain is often uniquely affected when microcephaly genes are mutated implying special centrosomal-related functions in neuronal production. Although models explaining how this could occur have some compelling data, they are not without controversy. Interestingly, some of the microcephaly genes show evidence that they were targets of evolutionary selection in primates and human ancestors, suggesting potential evolutionary roles in controlling neuronal number and brain volume across species. Mutations in DNA repair pathway genes also lead to microcephaly. Double-stranded DNA breaks appear to be a prominent type of damage that needs to be repaired during brain development, yet why defects in DNA repair affect the brain preferentially and if DNA repair relates to centrosome function, are not clearly understood.
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