Invasive behaviour is the hallmark of a variety of cell types of animal, plant, and fungal origin. Here we review the purpose and mechanism of invasive growth and migration. The focus is on the physical principles governing the process, the source of invasive force, and the cellular mechanism by which the cell penetrates the substrate. The current experimental methods for measuring invasive force and the modelling approaches for studying invasive behaviour are explained, and future experimental strategies are proposed.
Keywords: Cancer cells; fungal hyphae; invasive growth; migrating cells; neurons; pollen tubes; root hairs; tip growth..