Changes in insulin therapy regimens over 10 yr in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes attending diabetes camps

Pediatr Diabetes. 2014 Aug;15(5):329-35. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12062. Epub 2013 Sep 9.


Objective: To describe the changes in insulin therapy regimens of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes over 10 yr and their correlation with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).

Research design and methods: The study included 7206 children and adolescents (age 12.8 ± 2.7 yr, more than 1 yr of diabetes duration) admitted in summer camps between 1998 and 2007 (707-896/yr). Based on injection times (breakfast, lunch, afternoon, dinner, bedtime) and insulin types (short, long and premixed; human or analog), 786 different therapeutic combinations were classified in six main types of regimens. The distribution of the different regimens and their correlation with HbA1c were evaluated as a function of year and age.

Results: Over 10 yr, basal bolus increased from 13 to 52% and the pump from <1 to 13%, regimens with two to three injections per day decreased from 50 to 25%, those with only premixed insulins from 33 to 7%, and diverse regimens from 9 to 1%. HbA1c was significantly higher with premixed insulin only, but there were no differences between the other regimens throughout the follow-up. Mean yearly HbA1c (8.21-8.45%) did not show any significant decrease, but the percentage of patients with HbA1c > 9 and 10% decreased significantly, in those treated with two to three injections and the pump, not with basal bolus or premixed only regimens.

Conclusion: A major trend in intensifying insulin treatment in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes was accompanied by modest improvements in HbA1c. No insulin regimen has shown any better results, except over premixed insulins.

Keywords: adolescents; children; glycemic control (HbA1c); insulin therapeutic regimen; type 1 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems
  • Insulin, Long-Acting / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Young Adult


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Insulin, Long-Acting
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human