Color information is encoded by two parallel pathways in the mammalian retina. One pathway compares signals from long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones and generates red-green opponency. The other compares signals from short- and middle-/long-wavelength sensitive cones and generates blue-green (yellow) opponency. Whereas both pathways operate in trichromatic primates (including humans), the fundamental, phylogenetically ancient color mechanism shared among most mammals is blue-green opponency. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how signals from short-wavelength sensitive cones are processed in the primate and nonprimate mammalian retina, with a focus on the inner plexiform layer where bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cell processes interact to facilitate the generation of blue-green opponency.