Metabolomic profiling is ideally suited for the analysis of cardiac metabolism in healthy and diseased states. Here, we show that systematic discovery of biomarkers of ischemic preconditioning using metabolomics can be translated to potential nanotheranostics. Thirty-three patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after myocardial infarction. Blood was sampled from catheters in the coronary sinus, aorta and femoral vein before coronary occlusion and 20 minutes after one minute of coronary occlusion. Plasma was analysed using GC-MS metabolomics and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS proteomics. Proteins and metabolites were mapped into the Metacore network database (GeneGo, MI, USA) to establish functional relevance. Expression of 13 proteins was significantly different (p<0.05) as a result of PCI. Included amongst these was CD44, a cell surface marker of reperfusion injury. Thirty-eight metabolites were identified using a targeted approach. Using PCA, 42% of their variance was accounted for by 21 metabolites. Multiple metabolic pathways and potential biomarkers of cardiac ischemia, reperfusion and preconditioning were identified. CD44, a marker of reperfusion injury, and myristic acid, a potential preconditioning agent, were incorporated into a nanotheranostic that may be useful for cardiovascular applications. Integrating biomarker discovery techniques into rationally designed nanoconstructs may lead to improvements in disease-specific diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: cardiac ischemia; metabolomics; myocardial infarction.; silicon quantum dots; theranostics.