In a study of 1266 dogs with cryptorchism from a large clinic/hospital series 8 breeds were found to be at excess risk of the defect and 3 breeds at significantly low risk. Review of the medical histories revealed that hip dysplasia, patellar dislocation, defects of the penis and prepuce, and umbilical hernia were excessively associated with cryptorchism. Testicular tumors were diagnosed 10.9 times more commonly among cryptorchid dogs. The epidemiologic features of canine cryptorchism were compared with those in man. Cryptorchid dogs could be used as models for etiologic research.