A qualitative analysis among regular waterpipe tobacco smokers in London universities

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Oct;17(10):1364-9. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.12.0923.


Background: Waterpipe smoking is popular in the West despite the significant harm associated with its use. Little is known about the habits and practices of British smokers.

Design: A total of 32 regular waterpipe smokers attended focus groups, where trained facilitators explored knowledge, belief and attitudes to waterpipes. Transcripts were thematically analysed and grouped into seven broad categories.

Results: Waterpipes played a clearly defined social role, accentuated by reduced harm perception and greater social acceptance than cigarettes. Knowledge about waterpipes was lacking, partly due to the lack of media attention. Addiction was described as a 'social addiction', although this may mask true nicotine addiction. Waterpipe smokers were less interested in quitting due to intermittent smoking patterns, reinforcing the belief of reduced exposure to harm. Legislative issues were explored, including the need to legislate on waterpipes on a par with cigarettes.

Conclusion: Waterpipe smokers exhibited specific habits and attitudes not traditionally seen in cigarette smokers. It is important to encourage education to dispel the myths surrounding reduced harm perception and addiction to tackle its strong social acceptance. Legislation should play a more active role in prevention and education, and more emphasis should be placed on gathering nationwide epidemiological data to gauge the potential for escalation.

MeSH terms

  • Attitude to Health*
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Health Education / methods
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • London
  • Male
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Students / statistics & numerical data*
  • Universities