Severe degeneration of the medial collateral ligament in hallux valgus: a histopathologic study in 12 consecutive patients

Iowa Orthop J. 2013;33:54-7.


Objective: To determine the degree and location of degenerative changes of the medial collateral ligament of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, using the lateral collateral ligament as a control, in patients undergoing hallux valgus correction.

Materials and methods: A strip of medial and lateral collateral ligaments were biopsied from 12 consecutive patients (age 45 ± 4.8 years) with symptomatic hallux valgus. A blinded analysis of histopathology was performed by an experienced pathologist.

Results: The medial collateral ligament was significantly more degenerated compared to the lateral collateral ligament (x(2) = 23.41, DF = 2, p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in degeneration between different parts of each ligament.

Conclusion: Our study found generalized severe degeneration in the medial collateral ligament without proximal-distal predilection. This information may have implications in the management of medial soft tissue repair in hallux valgus correction. The Authors received no financial support for this study.

Keywords: Hallux Valgus; collateral ligament; degeneration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Collateral Ligaments / pathology*
  • Collateral Ligaments / surgery
  • Female
  • Hallux Valgus / pathology*
  • Hallux Valgus / surgery
  • Humans
  • Metatarsophalangeal Joint / pathology
  • Metatarsophalangeal Joint / surgery
  • Middle Aged