FDG-PET, combined with CT, is nowadays getting more and more relevant for the diagnosis of several infectious and inflammatory diseases and particularly for therapy monitoring. Thus, this paper gives special attention to the role of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Enough evidence in the literature already exists about the usefulness of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis, management, and followup of patients with sarcoidosis, spondylodiscitis, and vasculitis. For other diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune pancreatitis, and fungal infections, hard evidence is lacking, but studies also point out that FDG-PET/CT could be useful. It is of invaluable importance to have large prospective multicenter studies in this field to provide clear answers, not only for the status of nuclear medicine in general but also to reduce high costs of treatment.