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Obesity Can Influence Children's and Adolescents' Airway Hyperresponsiveness Differently

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Obesity Can Influence Children's and Adolescents' Airway Hyperresponsiveness Differently

Bruno Sposato et al. Multidiscip Respir Med.

Abstract

Background: Literature is still arguing about a possible relationship between airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and body mass index (BMI). This study aimed at evaluating the influence of BMI on AHR and pulmonary function in children and adolescents that performed a methacholine test for suggestive asthma symptoms.

Methods: 799 consecutive children/adolescents (535 M; mean age: 15 ± 3 yrs; median FEV1% predicted: 101.94% [93.46-111.95] and FEV1/FVC predicted: 91.07 [86.17-95.38]), were considered and divided into underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Different AHR levels were considered as moderate/severe (PD20 ≤ 400 μg) and borderline (PD20 > 400 μg).

Results: 536 children/adolescents resulted hyperreactive with a median PD20 of 366 μg [IQR:168-1010.5]; 317 patients were affected by moderate/severe AHR, whereas 219 showed borderline hyperresponsiveness. Obese subjects aged > 13 years showed a lower (p = 0.026) median PD20 (187μg [IQR:110-519]) compared to overweight (377 μg [IQR:204-774]) and normal-weight individuals' values (370.5 μg [IQR:189-877]). On the contrary, median PD20 observed in obese children aged ≤ 13 years (761 μg [IQR:731-1212]) was higher (p = 0.052) compared to normal-weight children's PD20 (193 μg [IQR:81-542]) and to obese adolescents' values (aged > 13 years) (p = 0.019). Obesity was a significant AHR risk factor (OR:2.853[1.037-7.855]; p = 0.042) in moderate/severe AHR adolescents. Females showed a higher AHR risk (OR:1.696[1.046-2.751] p = 0.032) compared to males. A significant relationship was found between BMI and functional parameters (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC) only in hyperreactive females.

Conclusions: Obesity seems to influence AHR negatively in female but not in male adolescents and children. In fact, AHR is higher in obese teenagers, in particular in those with moderate/severe hyperresponsiveness, and may be mediated by obesity-associated changes in baseline lung function.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
PD20values measured in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese males, females (a), smokers, non-smokers (b), moderate to severe and borderline AHR (c), and in those aged≤13 and>13 years(d). Comparisons were made with Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. §p = 0.024: obese non-smokers in comparison with overweight non-smokers; °p = 0.026: obese subjects aged > 13 years compared to overweight and normal weight adolescents (aged > 13 years); *p = 0.052: obese children (aged ≤ 13 years) compared to children aged ≤ 13 years with normal weight; #p = 0.019: obese children (aged ≤ 13 years) compared to obese adolescents (aged > 13 years). §p = 0.01.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Prevalence of subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness (PD20 < 2,400 μg) obtained in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese males, females (a), smokers, non-smokers (b), moderate/severe and borderline AHR (c), and in those aged ≤ 13 and>13 years(d). No differences among different groups and sub-groups (χ2 tests).

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    Peters U, Dixon AE, Forno E. Peters U, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Apr;141(4):1169-1179. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.02.004. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018. PMID: 29627041 Free PMC article. Review.

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