Patching the heart: cardiac repair from within and outside

Circ Res. 2013 Sep 13;113(7):922-32. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.300216.


Transplantation of engineered tissue patches containing either progenitor cells or cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair is emerging as an exciting treatment option for patients with postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. The beneficial effects may evolve directly from remuscularization or indirectly through paracrine mechanisms that mobilize and activate endogenous progenitor cells to promote neovascularization and remuscularization, inhibit apoptosis, and attenuate left ventricular dilatation and disease progression. Despite encouraging results, further improvements are necessary to enhance current tissue engineering concepts and techniques and to achieve clinical impact. Herein, we review several strategies for cardiac remuscularization and paracrine support that can induce cardiac repair and attenuate left ventricular dysfunction from both within and outside the myocardium.

Keywords: heart failure; paracrine; tissue engineering; tissue therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Heart Failure / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Muscle Development
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / cytology
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic
  • Paracrine Communication
  • Stem Cell Transplantation / methods*
  • Stem Cells / cytology
  • Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*