Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL3) provokes a tyrosine phosphoproteome to drive prometastatic signal transduction

Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013 Dec;12(12):3759-77. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M113.028886. Epub 2013 Sep 12.


Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL3) is suspected to be a causative factor toward cellular metastasis when in excess. To date, the molecular basis for PRL3 function remains an enigma, making efforts at distilling a concerted mechanism for PRL3-mediated metastatic dissemination very difficult. We previously discovered that PRL3 expressing cells exhibit a pronounced increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we take an unbiased mass spectrometry-based approach toward identifying the phosphoproteins exhibiting enhanced levels of tyrosine phosphorylation with a goal to define the "PRL3-mediated signaling network." Phosphoproteomic data support intracellular activation of an extensive signaling network normally governed by extracellular ligand-activated transmembrane growth factor, cytokine, and integrin receptors in the PRL3 cells. Additionally, data implicate the Src tyrosine kinase as the major intracellular kinase responsible for "hijacking" this network and provide strong evidence that aberrant Src activation is a major consequence of PRL3 overexpression. Importantly, the data support a PDGF(α/β)-, Eph (A2/B3/B4)-, and Integrin (β1/β5)-receptor array as being the predominant network coordinator in the PRL3 cells, corroborating a PRL3-induced mesenchymal-state. Within this network, we find that tyrosine phosphorylation is increased on a multitude of signaling effectors responsible for Rho-family GTPase, PI3K-Akt, STAT, and ERK activation, linking observations made by the field as a whole under Src as a primary signal transducer. Our phosphoproteomic data paint the most comprehensive picture to date of how PRL3 drives prometastatic molecular events through Src activation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics*
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • Clone Cells
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Integrins / genetics
  • Integrins / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasm Proteins / genetics*
  • Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics*
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Phosphotyrosine / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / genetics*
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism
  • Receptors, Eph Family / genetics
  • Receptors, Eph Family / metabolism
  • Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / genetics
  • Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism
  • STAT Transcription Factors / genetics
  • STAT Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • src-Family Kinases / genetics
  • src-Family Kinases / metabolism


  • Integrins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • STAT Transcription Factors
  • Phosphotyrosine
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Receptors, Eph Family
  • Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  • src-Family Kinases
  • PTP4A3 protein, human
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins