Background: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is generally treated by burr hole irrigation. However, sometimes repeated recurrence is observed, and treatment may consequently become difficult. We examined the efficacy of embolization of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) for such cases.
Methods: We considered embolization of the MMA for three patients who had refractory CSDH with repeated recurrence and two CSDH patients who were at risk of recurrence and showed signs of recurrence after surgery. A microcatheter was advanced through the MMA as peripherally as possible, and embolization was performed with 15-20% n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate or 200 μm polyvinyl alcohol particles.
Results: EMBOLIZATION WAS PERFORMED IN THE THREE PATIENTS WHO HAD REFRACTORY CSDH WITH REPEATED RECURRENCE: The procedure was performed after burr hole irrigation of the hematoma in two patients and before the irrigation in one patient. In the two CSDH patients at risk of recurrence, embolization was performed when signs of recurrence appeared. The timing of embolization differed for each patient. However, in all the patients, the hematoma tended to decrease in size, and no recurrence was observed.
Conclusion: Embolization of the MMA is effective for refractory CSDH or CSDH patients with a risk of recurrence, and is considered an effective therapeutic method to stop hematoma enlargement and promote resolution.
Keywords: Chronic subdural hematoma; embolization; middle meningeal artery; recurrence.