Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to establish latent infections in B-lymphocytes that can cause lymphoproliferative disorders particularly in immunocompromised patients. More recently, the development of rare EBV-associated smooth muscle tumors has been reported in transplant recipients. We herein describe 2 new cases of EBV-associated post-transplant smooth muscle tumors (EBV-PTSMT), including the first in a facial composite tissue graft recipient. Among the striking features shared by these 2 patients were their young ages, the fact that they were naïve for EBV before the transplantation, that they developed a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder before the diagnosis of EBV-PTSMT, and that they responded favorably to reduction of immunosuppression. Radiological and histologic features of EBV-PTSMT are shown. Finally, pathophysiology and therapeutic management of EBV-PTSMT are discussed based on a comprehensive review of the literature.
Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; PTLD; composite tissue allotransplantation; face transplantation; post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders; post-transplant smooth muscle tumors.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.