Alterations in the gut microbiota associated with HIV-1 infection

Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Sep 11;14(3):329-39. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2013.08.006.


Understanding gut microbiota alterations associated with HIV infection and factors that drive these alterations may help explain gut-linked diseases prevalent with HIV. 16S rRNA sequencing of feces from HIV-infected individuals revealed that HIV infection is associated with highly characteristic gut community changes, and antiretroviral therapy does not consistently restore the microbiota to an HIV-negative state. Despite the chronic gut inflammation characteristic of HIV infection, the associated microbiota showed limited similarity with other inflammatory states and instead showed increased, rather than decreased, diversity. Meta-analysis revealed that the microbiota of HIV-infected individuals in the U.S. was most similar to a Prevotella-rich community composition typically observed in healthy individuals in agrarian cultures of Malawi and Venezuela and related to that of U.S. individuals with carbohydrate-rich, protein- and fat-poor diets. By evaluating innate and adaptive immune responses to lysates from bacteria that differ with HIV, we explore the functional drivers of these compositional differences.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / classification*
  • Bacteria / growth & development
  • Biota*
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemistry
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA, Ribosomal / chemistry
  • DNA, Ribosomal / genetics
  • Dysbiosis*
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / microbiology*
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA, Ribosomal
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S