Background: Weaning from mechanical ventilation is a frequent nursing activity in critical care. Nature-based sound as a non-pharmacological and nursing intervention effective in other contexts may be an efficient approach to alleviating anxiety, agitation and adverse effects of sedative medication in patients undergoing weaning from mechanical ventilation.
Objectives: This study identified the effect of nature-based sound therapy on agitation and anxiety on coronary artery bypass graft patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation.
Methods: A randomised clinical trial design was used. 120 coronary artery bypass graft patients aged 45-65 years undergoing weaning from mechanical ventilation were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group listened to nature-based sounds through headphones; the control group had headphones with no sound. Haemodynamic variables, anxiety levels and agitation were assessed using the Faces Anxiety Scale and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, respectively. Patients in both groups had vital signs recorded after the first trigger, at 20 min intervals throughout the procedure, immediately after the procedure, 20 min after extubation, and 30 min after extubation. Data were collected over 5 months from December 2012 to April 2013.
Results: The intervention group had significantly lower anxiety and agitation levels than the control group. Regarding haemodynamic variables, a significant time trend and interaction was reported between time and group (p<0.001). A significant difference was also found between the anxiety (p<0.002) and agitation (p<0.001) scores in two groups.
Conclusions: Nature-based sound can provide an effective method of decreasing potential adverse haemodynamic responses arising from anxiety and agitation in weaning from mechanical ventilation in coronary artery bypass graft patients. Nurses can incorporate this intervention as a non-pharmacological intervention into the daily care of patients undergoing weaning from mechanical ventilation in order to reduce their anxiety and agitation.
Keywords: Agitation; Anxiety; Coronary artery bypass; Nursing; Respiration; Sound.
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