Use of proton pump inhibitors and subsequent risk of celiac disease

Dig Liver Dis. 2014 Jan;46(1):36-40. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2013.08.128. Epub 2013 Sep 12.


Background: The prevalence of celiac disease and the use of medications that inhibit acid secretion have both increased in recent decades.

Aim: To explore the association between antisecretory medication exposure and subsequent development of celiac disease.

Methods: In this population-based case control study, we identified patients with celiac disease diagnosed at all pathology departments in Sweden from July 2005 through February 2008. Patients were matched by age and gender with up to 5 controls. We identified prior prescriptions for proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists in all subjects. We used conditional logistic regression to measure the association between these prescriptions and the subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease.

Results: Prior proton pump inhibitor prescription was strongly associated with celiac disease (OR 4.79; 95% CI 4.17-5.51). Patients prescribed both proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists had a higher risk of celiac disease (OR 5.96; 95% CI 3.58-9.91) than those prescribed proton pump inhibitors alone (OR 4.91; 95% CI 4.26-5.66) or histamine-2 receptor antagonists alone (OR 4.16; 95% CI 2.89-5.99).

Conclusions: Exposure to antisecretory medications is associated with a subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease. The persistence of this association after excluding prescriptions in the year preceding the celiac disease diagnosis suggests a causal relationship.

Keywords: Celiac disease; Proton pump inhibitors; Risk factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Celiac Disease / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Histamine H2 Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Histamine H2 Antagonists
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors