Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs mediated signaling to induce immunity by chicken BMDCs

J Cell Biochem. 2014 Jan;115(1):189-98. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24650.


Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a critical role to activate immune response. They may be targeted for immunomodulation by microbes, including probiotics. In this study, chicken bone marrow dendrite cells (chi-BMDCs) were stimulated with lipopolysachride (LPS), Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb), Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs), co-culture of Sb + Bs and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a control group (Ctr) at 3, 6, and 12 h intervals. Results revealed that treatment groups modulated the phenotype and biological functions of chi-BMDCs. Scan electron microscopy showed attachment of probiotics on the surface of chi-BMDCs. Additionally transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed efficiently engulfing and degradation of probiotics. Gene expression levels of MHC-II, CD40, CD80 and CD86 up-regulated in stimulated groups. Furthermore, toll-like receptors TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and chicken specific TLR15 expressions were improved and downstream associated factors MyD88, TRAF6, TAB1, and NFκ-B mRNA levels increased in all treatment groups as compared to control. Surprisingly, NFκ-B response was noted significant higher in LPS treatment among all groups. Moreover, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-4, TGF-β, and IL-10 production levels were found higher, and lower concentration of INF-γ and IL-8 were observed in Sb, Bs, and Sb + Bs treatment groups. In contrast, LPS groups showed prominent increase in IL-12, INF-γ, and IL-8 concentration levels as compared to control group. Altogether, these results emphasize a potentially important role of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 in modulating immunological functions of chi-BMDCs by targeting specific toll like receptors (TLRs) and associated factors. The role of probiotics on chi-BMDCs functionality in a non-mammalian species have been presented for the first time.


Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacillus subtilis*
  • Bone Marrow Cells / cytology
  • Bone Marrow Cells / immunology*
  • Bone Marrow Cells / microbiology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokines / metabolism
  • Chickens
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Dendritic Cells / drug effects
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology*
  • Dendritic Cells / microbiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
  • Probiotics / pharmacology*
  • Saccharomyces*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism*


  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Toll-Like Receptors