Sleep disturbances associated with cigarette smoking

Psychol Health Med. 2014;19(4):410-9. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2013.832782. Epub 2013 Sep 17.


Sleep disturbances resulting in insufficient sleep have been linked to negative physical, cognitive, and public health outcomes. Despite this, there has yet a study that examines the impact of smoking on sleep in a US based national sample. The current study sought to observe sleep disturbances associated with smoking status. Sleep disturbances in adults aged 20 years and above, from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were measured among current, former, and never smokers (NS). Current smokers (CS) reported significantly less total sleep time, longer sleep onset latency, increased difficulty falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and waking up earlier than desired when compared to NS. Former smokers reported disturbances similar to NS and CS experienced poorer sleep than nonsmokers. Our study is the first to observe sleep difficulty by smoking status in a large, population-based, nationally representative sample. Recommendations for smoking cessation programs are discussed.

Keywords: NHANES; health behaviors; sleep disturbances; sleep quality; smoking status.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Qualitative Research
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / etiology*
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Young Adult