Cost-effectiveness of the vaccine against human papillomavirus in the Brazilian Amazon region

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). Sep-Oct 2013;59(5):442-51. doi: 10.1016/j.ramb.2013.03.004. Epub 2013 Sep 14.


Objective: To assess the cost-utility of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on the prevention of cervical cancer in the Brazilian Amazon region.

Methods: A Markov cohort model was developed to simulate the natural evolution of HPV and its progress to cervical cancer, considering the current preventive programs and treatment costs. The one-year transition probabilities were mainly based on empirical data of local and national studies. The model evaluated the addition of the vaccine to three cervical cancer-screening scenarios (0, 3 or 10 exams throughout life).

Results: The scenario of three Pap tests resulted in satisfactory calibration (base case). The addition of HPV vaccination would reduce by 35% the incidence of cervical cancer (70% vaccination coverage). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 825 for each quality-adjusted life year gained. The sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of this result, and duration of immunity was the parameter with greater variation in incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.

Conclusion: Vaccination has a favorable profile in terms of cost-utility, and its inclusion in the immunization schedule would result in a substantial reduction in incidence and mortality of invasive cervical cancer in the Brazilian Amazon region.

Keywords: Amazon region; Brasil; Brazil; Cervical cancer; Cost-effectiveness; Custo-efetividade; Câncer de colo de útero; Human papillomavirus; Papilomavírus humano; Região amazônica; Vaccine; Vacina.

MeSH terms

  • Brazil
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Markov Chains
  • Mass Vaccination / economics*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / economics*
  • Quality of Life
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control*


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines