As nanoparticles (NPs) are cleared via phagocytes of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), we hypothesized that the function of circulating monocytes and dendritic cells (MO/DC) in blood can predict NP clearance (CL). We measured MO/DC phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mice, rats, dogs, and patients with refractory solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic studies of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-encapsulated liposomal doxorubicin (PEGylated liposomal doxirubicin [PLD]), CKD-602 (S-CKD602), and cisplatin (SPI-077) were performed at the maximum tolerated dose. MO/DC function was also evaluated in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) administered PLD. Across species, a positive association was observed between cell function and CL of PEGylated liposomes. In patients with EOC, associations were observed between PLD CL and phagocytosis (R(2) = 0.43, P = 0.04) and ROS production (R(2) = 0.61, P = 0.008) in blood MO/DC. These findings suggest that probes of MPS function may help predict PEGylated liposome CL across species and PLD CL in patients with EOC.