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, 10 (1), 53-63

Surgical Management of Urinary Calculi

  • PMID: 2404329

Surgical Management of Urinary Calculi

J W Segura. Semin Nephrol.


Shock wave lithotripsy is the cornerstone of the modern management of urinary calculi and is the preferred treatment for most small renal stones. Percutaneous lithotripsy is preferred for large stones and in combination with ESWL for staghorn calculi. Upper ureteral stones should be pushed back to the kidney for ESWL, if possible; otherwise they should be treated in situ. Lower ureteral stones are preferentially managed with ureteroscopy, but ESWL may also be used. A variety of methods of power lithotripsy are available: ultrasound, electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. Only 1% to 2% of stone patients require open surgery; it is an important judgment to identify these patients to avoid inappropriate use of newer techniques in cases where success is unlikely. It is apparent that modern management of the patient with a urinary calculus requires access to all methods of stone removal. The surgeon and internist should not forget that the goal is to remove the stone safely, efficaciously, and economically.

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