Osteoporosis prevention and management: nonpharmacologic and lifestyle options

Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Dec;56(4):703-10. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3182a9d15a.


The purpose of this review is to evaluate current evidence regarding the use of dietary and exercise interventions to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The key lifestyle modifications that can decrease risk of fracture in postmenopausal women include regular weight-bearing exercise and a balanced diet with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Other modifiable lifestyle factors critical to bone health and to decrease fracture risk include the avoidance of smoking, an excessively low body weight, excessive alcohol intake, and fall risks at home. Emerging modifiable factors may include B-vitamin, omega-3 fatty acid, soy isoflavone, and dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Alcohol Drinking / prevention & control
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Calcium, Dietary / therapeutic use*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Exercise Therapy*
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / complications
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / therapy*
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / etiology
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / prevention & control*
  • Risk Reduction Behavior*
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Vitamin B Complex / therapeutic use
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use


  • Bone Density Conservation Agents
  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin B Complex
  • Vitamin D