Identification of a urine metabolomic signature in patients with advanced-stage chronic kidney disease

Kidney Int. 2014 Jan;85(1):103-11. doi: 10.1038/ki.2013.328. Epub 2013 Sep 18.


The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing and frequently progresses to end-stage renal disease. There is an urgent demand to discover novel markers of disease that allow monitoring disease progression and, eventually, response to treatment. To identify such markers, and as a proof of principle, we determined if a metabolite signature corresponding to CKD can be found in urine. In the discovery stage, we analyzed the urine metabolome by NMR of 15 patients with CKD and compared that with the metabolome of 15 healthy individuals and found a classification pattern clearly indicative of CKD. A validation cohort of urine samples from an additional 16 patients with CKD and 15 controls was then analyzed by (Selected Reaction Monitoring) liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and indicated that a group of seven urinary metabolites differed between CKD and non-CKD urine samples. This profile consisted of 5-oxoproline, glutamate, guanidoacetate, α-phenylacetylglutamine, taurine, citrate, and trimethylamine N-oxide. Thus, we identified a panel of urine metabolites differentially present in urine that may help identify and monitor patients with CKD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / urine*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / urine*
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Metabolome*
  • Middle Aged


  • Biomarkers