Influence of various metal oxides on mechanical and physical properties of heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate denture base resins

J Adv Prosthodont. 2013 Aug;5(3):241-7. doi: 10.4047/jap.2013.5.3.241. Epub 2013 Aug 31.


Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various metal oxides on impact strength (IS), fracture toughness (FT), water sorption (WSP) and solubility (WSL) of heat-cured acrylic resin.

Materials and methods: Fifty acrylic resin specimens were fabricated for each test and divided into five groups. Group 1 was the control group and Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 (test groups) included a mixture of 1% TiO2 and 1% ZrO2, 2% Al2O3, 2% TiO2, and 2% ZrO2 by volume, respectively. Rectangular unnotched specimens (50 mm × 6.0 mm × 4.0 mm) were fabricated and droptower impact testing machine was used to determine IS. For FT, compact test specimens were fabricated and tests were done with a universal testing machine with a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min. For WSP and WSL, discshaped specimens were fabricated and tests were performed in accordance to ISO 1567. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analyses.

Results: IS and FT values were significantly higher and WSP and WSL values were significantly lower in test groups than in control group (P<.05). Group 5 had significantly higher IS and FT values and significantly lower WSP values than other groups (P<.05) and provided 40% and 30% increase in IS and FT, respectively, compared to control group. Significantly lower WSL values were detected for Group 2 and 5 (P<.05).

Conclusion: Modification of heat-cured acrylic resin with metal oxides, especially with ZrO2, may be useful in preventing denture fractures and undesirable physical changes resulting from oral fluids clinically.

Keywords: Metal-oxide; Polymer; Reinforcement; Water sorption and solubility.