Immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Hot-nature diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention in multiple sclerosis patients

Complement Ther Med. 2013 Oct;21(5):473-80. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2013.06.006. Epub 2013 Jul 25.


Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most chronic and inflammatory disorder. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. This study was aimed to assess the potential therapeutic effects of hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-nature dietary intervention on RRMS patients.

Methods and materials: In this double blind, randomized trial, 100 MS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into 3 groups: "Group A" who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot-nature diet, "Group B" who received olive oil, "Group C" who received the co-supplemented oils. Mizadj, clinically EDSS and relapse rate as well as immunological factors (IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17) were assessed at baseline and after 6 months.

Results: Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25±8.07 years with disease duration 6.80±4.33 years). There was no significant difference in studies parameters at baseline. After 6 months, significant improvements in Mizadj, EDSS and relapse rate were found in the groups A and C, while the group B showed a border significant decrease in relapse rate. Immunological parameters showed improvement in groups A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for group B after the intervention.

Conclusion: The co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with Hot-nature diet have beneficial effects in improving of clinical score in RRMS patients which were confirmed by immunological findings.

Keywords: (FADS2)delta-6-desaturase; (STA) stearidonic acid; AA; ALA; CMF; CNS; D6D; DGLA; DHA; EDSS; EFAs; EP; EPA; EPO; Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.); Expanded Disability Status Scale; FAME; FAs; FDA; FR; GC; GLA; HS; HSO; Hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.); Hot-nature diet; IFN; IFN-γ; IL; Inflammation; LA; LC-PUFA; MS; MUFA; Mizadj; Multiple sclerosis; NSRC; Neurosciences Research Center; PGE; PUFA; RBCs; RRMS; SDA; SFAs; T helper (1-2); TIM; Th; Traditional Iranian Medicine; USFA; W/C; Warmth/Coldness; alpha-linolenic acid; arachidonic acid; cell membrane fluidity; central nervous system; dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid; docosahexanoic acid (key omega-3); eicosapentaenoic acid; essential fatty acids; evening primrose; evening primrose oil; fatty acid methyl esters; fatty acids; food and drug administration; food records; gamma linolenic acid; gas chromatography; hemp seed; hemp seed oil; interferon (β1b-β1a-β); interferon-γ; interleukin-4; linoleic acid (omega-6 family); long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid; monounsaturated fatty acids; multiple sclerosis; non-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires; nqFFQ; omega-3polyunsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acid; prostaglandin (E1, E2, E3); red blood cells; relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis; saturated fatty acids; unsaturated fatty acid; ω3-PUFAs.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cannabis*
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Diet*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Iran
  • Male
  • Medicine, Traditional
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways
  • Multiple Sclerosis / blood
  • Multiple Sclerosis / diet therapy
  • Multiple Sclerosis / drug therapy*
  • Multiple Sclerosis / immunology
  • Oenothera biennis*
  • Phytotherapy / methods*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Plant Oils / administration & dosage*
  • Seeds


  • Cytokines
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Oils