Celiac patients generally have a low intake of protein and fibre attributed to their gluten-free (GF) diet. To satisfy the increasing demand for healthier products, this research focused on the effects of the supplementation of Psyllium (P) and sugar beet fibre (SB) on the mixing and leavening behaviour of gluten-free doughs. Four doughs, having different consistencies that made them suitable to be poured into moulds or to be shaped, and their corresponding breads were evaluated. The results obtained suggested that a lower consistency is preferred to assure good dough performances during leavening, in particular when ingredients having a high water affinity are included into the recipe. Both P and SB improved the workability of the doughs, but P played a central role on GF bread development, thanks to its film forming ability, and evidenced a more effective antistaling effect, thanks to its high water binding capacity.
Keywords: A; AMY; ANOVA; B; B(A200); B(A500); B(B200); B(B500); BD; BU; Baking; Brabender Unit; Brabender(®) Micro-Visco-Amylograph; CD; CO(2) released by the dough; CO(2) retained by the dough; CO(2-REL); CO(2-RET); CO(2-TOT); CS; D(A200); D(A500); D(B200); D(B500); DS; Dough consistency; FV; GF; GF baking mixtures: M(0) (CS+RS+RF+RP), M(1) (M(0)+HPMC+LB+GG), M(A) (M(1)+2.5%P+0.5%SB), M(B) (M(1)+1.5%P+1.5%SB); GG; Gluten-free bread; HPMC; Hf; Hm; LB; LSD; Leavening; M; MVA; P; PT; PV; Psyllium; Psyllium fibre; RF; RP; RS; Rc; SB; Sb; Sugar beet fibre; TS; Tx; WA; WBC; amount of water required to reach the desired dough consistency; analysis of variance; bread obtained from D(A200); bread obtained from D(A500); bread obtained from D(B200); bread obtained from D(B500); breakdown; celiac disease; corn starch; damaged starch; dough obtained from M(A), with a consistency of 200BU; dough obtained from M(A), with a consistency of 500BU; dough obtained from M(B), with a consistency of 200BU; dough obtained from M(B), with a consistency of 500BU; final dough height; final viscosity; formulation containing 1.5% Psyllium and 1.5% sugar beet fibre; formulation containing 2.5% Psyllium and 0.5% sugar beet fibre; gas retention coefficient; gluten-free; guar gum; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; least significant differences; locust bean gum; maltogenic amylase; maximum dough development; pasting temperature; peak viscosity; rice flour; rice protein; rice starch; setback; sugar beet fibre; time of dough porosity appearance; total CO(2) production; total starch; water binding capacity.
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