Approaches for the analysis of chlorinated lipids

Anal Biochem. 2013 Dec 15;443(2):148-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2013.09.016. Epub 2013 Sep 19.


Leukocytes are key cellular mediators of human diseases through their role in inflammation. Identifying unique molecules produced by leukocytes may provide new biomarkers and mechanistic insights into the role of leukocytes in disease. Chlorinated lipids are generated as a result of myeloperoxidase-containing leukocyte-derived hypochlorous acid targeting the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens. The initial product of this reaction is α-chlorofatty aldehyde. α-Chlorofatty aldehyde is both oxidized to α-chlorofatty acid and reduced to α-chlorofatty alcohol by cellular metabolism. This review focuses on the separation techniques and quantitative analysis for these chlorinated lipids. For α-chlorofatty acid, the negative charge of carboxylic acids is exploited to detect the chlorinated lipid species of these acids by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. In contrast, α-chlorofatty aldehyde and α-chlorofatty alcohol are converted to pentafluorobenzyl oxime and pentafluorobenzoyl ester derivatives, which are detected by negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. These two detection methods coupled with the use of stable isotope internal standards and either liquid chromatography or gas chromatography provide highly sensitive analytical approaches to measure these novel lipids.

Keywords: Chlorinated lipids; Chromatography; Fatty acid; Fatty aldehyde; Mass spectrometry; Monocytes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatography / methods*
  • Fatty Acids / chemistry
  • Fatty Acids / isolation & purification
  • Halogenation
  • Humans
  • Lipids / chemistry*
  • Lipids / isolation & purification
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods*


  • Fatty Acids
  • Lipids