Eighteen patients had caudate nucleus infarcts (10 left-sided; 8 right-sided). Infarcts extended into the anterior limb of the internal capsule in 9 patients, and also the anterior putamen in 5 patients. Thirteen patients had motor signs, most often a slight transient hemiparesis. Dysarthria was common (11 patients). Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities were frequent, and included abulia (10 patients), agitation and hyperactivity (7 patients), contralateral neglect (3 patients, all right caudate), and language abnormalities (2 patients, both left caudate). The majority of patients had risk factors for penetrating artery disease. Branch occlusion of Heubner's artery, or perforators from the proximal anterior or middle cerebral arteries were the posited mechanism of infarction.