Long-term survival of dental implants placed in the grafted maxillary sinus: systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment modalities

PLoS One. 2013 Sep 18;8(9):e75357. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075357. eCollection 2013.


Background: A prevalent modality to increase the amount of available bone prior to implantation is grafting of the maxillary sinus. Multiple factors such as the surgical technique, moment of implant placement as well as grafting materials and membranes are known to affect implant survival. However, the role of different factor combinations and associated reciprocal effects remain unclear. Conventional statistical methods do not consider inconsistency of study designs and do not take covariables into account. Hence, a systematic research and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of various treatment modalities on implant survival in the grafted maxillary sinus.

Materials and methods: A meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Articles published from 1980 through January 2013 were electronically and manually searched in MEDLINE (Ovid), the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, the Database of Abstracts of Effects, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Clinical reports on single intervention sinus augmentation with root-form implants, a minimum of 10 patients and 6 months of loading were eligible for inclusion if implant survival was stated or calculable. Results were calculated by non-parametric univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and Bayesian multivariate interval-censored Cox regression.

Results: A total of 122 publications on 16268 endosseous implants placed in grafted maxillary sinus were included. The treatment parameters surgical approach, grafting material and implant type showed no selective preference. However, application of membranes showed a significantly reduced hazard-ratio, independent of other co-factors.

Conclusions: The use of membranes is the most significant factor to achieve long-term implant survival in sinus augmentation procedures. More data exceeding 3 years follow-up are needed to address prospective confounding and improve clinical evidence.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Dental Implantation*
  • Dental Implants*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Maxillary Sinus / surgery*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Time Factors


  • Dental Implants

Grants and funding

The authors have no support or funding to report.