Vitamin D₃ derivatives increase soluble CD14 release through ERK1/2 activation and decrease IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells

Eur J Pharmacol. 2013 Dec 5;721(1-3):305-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.09.014. Epub 2013 Sep 20.


Dysfunction of the innate immune system has been reported to cause intestinal inflammation. Vitamin D3 is known to be an important immune system regulator and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated in vitro effects of vitamin D3 and its derivatives on the innate immune system in HT-29 cells, a line of human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Among the innate immune-related receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 6, and CD14 examined by flow cytometry, only CD14 was up-regulated by vitamin D3 derivatives. Release of soluble form CD14 (sCD14) was also increased by vitamin D3 derivatives. The 1α,25-dihydroxy-22-oxavitamin D3 (Oxa-D3) induced-sCD14 release was inhibited by U0126 (a specific inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase; ERK1/2) but not by SB203580 (a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK), and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was accelerated by Oxa-D3. These results indicate that Oxa-D3 facilitates the release of sCD14 through ERK1/2 activation. IL-8 production stimulated with LPS was diminished by vitamin D3 derivatives. Recombinant sCD14 also lowered the LPS-stimulated IL-8 production, suggesting neutralization of LPS by sCD14. The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D3 derivatives was thus associated with diminution of IL-8 production due to increased release of sCD14.

Keywords: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2; Interleukin-8; Soluble form CD14; Vitamin D(3).

MeSH terms

  • Butadienes / pharmacology
  • Cell Membrane / drug effects
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Cholecalciferol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cholecalciferol / pharmacology*
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • HT29 Cells
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / cytology*
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / chemistry
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / genetics
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / metabolism*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism*
  • Nitriles / pharmacology
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Solubility


  • Butadienes
  • Interleukin-8
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Nitriles
  • RNA, Messenger
  • U 0126
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3