Dysfunction of the innate immune system has been reported to cause intestinal inflammation. Vitamin D3 is known to be an important immune system regulator and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated in vitro effects of vitamin D3 and its derivatives on the innate immune system in HT-29 cells, a line of human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Among the innate immune-related receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 6, and CD14 examined by flow cytometry, only CD14 was up-regulated by vitamin D3 derivatives. Release of soluble form CD14 (sCD14) was also increased by vitamin D3 derivatives. The 1α,25-dihydroxy-22-oxavitamin D3 (Oxa-D3) induced-sCD14 release was inhibited by U0126 (a specific inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase; ERK1/2) but not by SB203580 (a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK), and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was accelerated by Oxa-D3. These results indicate that Oxa-D3 facilitates the release of sCD14 through ERK1/2 activation. IL-8 production stimulated with LPS was diminished by vitamin D3 derivatives. Recombinant sCD14 also lowered the LPS-stimulated IL-8 production, suggesting neutralization of LPS by sCD14. The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D3 derivatives was thus associated with diminution of IL-8 production due to increased release of sCD14.
Keywords: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2; Interleukin-8; Soluble form CD14; Vitamin D(3).
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