Recent studies have revealed that at lower cultivation temperatures (25 °C) much higher percentage of correctly folded recombinant hG-CSF protein can be extracted from inclusion bodies. Hence, the goal of our research was to investigate mechanisms determining characteristics of non-classical inclusion bodies production using gene expression profiling, focusing on proteases and chaperones gene expression. Statistical analysis of microarray data showed prominent changes in energy metabolism, in metabolism of amino acids and nucleotides, as well as in biosynthesis of cofactors and secondary metabolites if the culture was grown below its optimal temperature. Moreover, 24 differentially expressed up to now known genes classified among proteases, chaperones and other heat or stress related genes. Among chaperones UspE and among proteases YaeL and YeaZ might play an important role in accumulation of correctly folded recombinant proteins. Membrane localized protease yaeL gene was found to have higher activity at 25 °C and is thus potentially functionally related to the more efficient recombinant protein production at lower temperatures. The results of this study represent advance in the understanding of recombinant protein production in E. coli. Genes potentially influencing production of recombinant protein at lower growth temperature represent basis for further research towards improvement of E. coli production strains as well as fermentation process.