Background: The magnitude of improvement of acute heart failure achieved during treatment varies greatly among patients. We examined changes in the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels of patients with acute heart failure and attempted to elucidate the clinical factors associated with amelioration of acute heart failure.
Methods and results: The study population consisted of 208 consecutive patients admitted to our institution with acute heart failure. We measured plasma BNP levels before and after treatment of acute heart failure and evaluated these levels based on median age, body mass index (BMI), creatinine (Cr) level, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). Plasma BNP levels before treatment were equivalent between the younger and older age groups; however, plasma BNP levels after treatment were higher in the older age group (p<0.01). Plasma BNP levels before treatment were significantly high in the lower BMI group (p<0.05) and the higher Cr group (p<0.01). Similarly, plasma BNP levels after treatment were high in both the lower BMI and higher Cr groups (p<0.01 for both). In the low EF group, plasma BNP levels before treatment were significantly high (p<0.01), while plasma BNP levels after treatment were equivalent to those in the high EF group. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Cr was positively correlated and BMI and EF were negatively correlated with plasma BNP levels before treatment; however, the contributions of age, BMI, and Cr in reducing plasma BNP levels were more significant after treatment.
Conclusions: The contributions of clinical factors working against amelioration of heart failure vary before and after treatment. Regarding plasma BNP levels, older age, very low BMI, and the presence of renal dysfunction eventually act to prevent amelioration of acute heart failure. Systolic dysfunction does not act against amelioration of acute heart failure.
Keywords: B-type natriuretic peptide; Body mass index; creatinine; diastolic dysfunction; ejection fraction.