Purpose: Rapid premature release of lipophilic drugs from liposomal lipid bilayer to plasma proteins and biological membranes is a challenge for targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study is to reduce premature release of lipophilic short-chain ceramides by encapsulating ceramides into liposomal aqueous interior with the aid of poly (lactic-coglycolicacid) (PLGA).
Methods: BODIPY FL labeled ceramide (FL-ceramide) and BODIPY-TR labeled ceramide (TR-ceramide) were encapsulated into carboxy-terminated PLGA nanoparticles. The negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles were then encapsulated into cationic liposomes to obtain PLGA/liposome hybrids. As a control, FL-ceramide and/or TR ceramide co-loaded liposomes without PLGA were prepared. The release of ceramides from PLGA/liposome hybrids and liposomes in rat plasma, cultured MDA-MB-231 cells, and rat blood circulation was compared using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between FL-ceramide (donor) and TR-ceramide (acceptor).
Results: FRET analysis showed that FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in liposomal lipid bilayer were rapidly released during incubation with rat plasma. In contrast, the FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in PLGA/liposome hybrids showed extended release. FRET images of cells revealed that ceramides in liposomal bilayer were rapidly transferred to cell membranes. In contrast, ceramides in PLGA/liposome hybrids were internalized into cells with nanoparticles simultaneously. Upon intravenous administration to rats, ceramides encapsulated in liposomal bilayer were completely released in 2 min. In contrast, ceramides encapsulated in the PLGA core were retained in PLGA/liposome hybrids for 4 h.
Conclusions: The PLGA/liposome hybrid nanoparticles reduced in vitro and in vivo premature release of ceramides and offer a viable platform for targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs.