We analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 97 Japanese lung adenocarcinoma patients and identified several putative cancer-related genes and pathways. Particularly, we observed that cancer-related mutation patterns were significantly different between different ethnic groups. As previously reported, mutations in the EGFR gene were characteristic to Japanese, while those in the KRAS gene were more frequent in Caucasians. Furthermore, during the course of this analysis, we found that cancer-specific somatic mutations can be detected without sequencing normal tissue counterparts. 64% of the germline variants could be excluded using a total of 217 external Japanese exome datasets. We also show that a similar approach may be used for other three ethnic groups, although the discriminative power depends on the ethnic group. We demonstrate that the ATM gene and the PAPPA2 gene could be identified as cancer prognosis related genes. By bypassing the sequencing of normal tissue counterparts, this approach provides a useful means of not only reducing the time and cost of sequencing but also analyzing archive samples, for which normal tissue counterparts are not available.