Patients with cancer can be vulnerable to infection with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens such as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A cohort study was performed to evaluate the epidemiology and impact of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) bacteraemia on the outcomes of adult patients with cancer. During the 2.5-year study period, a total of 350 cases of E. coli bacteraemia were documented in cancer patients, of which 95 (27.1%) were due to ESBL-EC. Significant factors associated with ESBL-EC bacteraemia were liver disease, immunosuppressant use, recent surgery, and prior use of cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 14.9% (52/350), and the mortality rate was higher in patients with ESBL-EC than in those without ESBL-EC (22.1% vs.12.2%; P=0.02). Multivariate analysis showed that ESBL-EC was an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio=3.01, 95% confidence interval 1.45-6.28; P=0.003), along with the presence of septic shock, mechanical ventilation, the severity of underlying diseases, and pneumonia as a source of bacteraemia. Of the 69 isolates in which ESBLs and their molecular relationships were studied, 68 (98.6%) produced CTX-M-type and 51 (73.9%) produced CTX-M-14 and/or CTX-M-15. Twenty-four sequence types (STs) were identified among CTX-M-14- and CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates, with ST131 being the most prevalent (12/51; 23.5%). In conclusion, this study confirms that CTX-M-producing E. coli and ST131, which have been shown to be an emerging public health threat, are widely prevalent in cancer patients and can adversely affect the outcome of E. coli bacteraemia in these patients.
Keywords: Bacteraemia; Cancer; Escherichia coli; Extended-spectrum β-lactamase; Treatment outcome.
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