[Diagnosis and treatment of ketamine-associated cystitis: a report of 3 cases and literature review]

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2013 Sep;38(9):966-70. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7347.2013.09.017.
[Article in Chinese]


Objective: To determine the diagnosis, treatment, and pathogenesis of ketamine-associated cystitis.

Methods: Clinical data from 3 patients with ketamine-associated cystitis were analyzed retrospectively and discussed in light of relevant literature.

Results: In the 3 cases, 2 presented severe lower urinary tract symptoms, including frequency, urgency, dysuria, urge incontinence, and painful haematuria. Urinalysis and urine culture were negative. Imaging examination demonstrated thickening of the bladder wall and a small capacity. Inflammatory changes in the bladder mucosa were observed by cystoscopy and biopsies. After cessation of ketamine use, with the addition of steroids or hydrodistension, the symptoms in the 3 patients improved. The symptoms recurred in 2 patients, as 1 was exposed to ketamine again and 1 had severe bladder contraction after for 3 - 4 month follow-up.

Conclusion: Ketamine-associated cystitis is a new urinary system inflammatory damage. Its etiology and treatment methods are not clear. Early abstinence from ketamine use and early treatment are crucial for patients with ketamine-associated cystitis to avoid irreversible damage.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biopsy
  • Cystitis / chemically induced*
  • Cystoscopy
  • Humans
  • Ketamine / adverse effects*
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Substance-Related Disorders
  • Urinalysis


  • Ketamine